Located in the North-West of England, Manchester is notably famous for its industrial history and the popular music culture. The city with an ancient history dates back to the times of the Romans in 79 AD, when they built a fort known as Mamucium on a sandstone bluff near rivers Medlock and Irwell in the north of the modern Manchester city, as we know today. The fort was originally constructed with wood, but later rebuilt in stone. However, as the forces left Britain by the end of the Roman rule in 407 AD, the stone fort was left to become a ruin.
Later in the 11th century, the nomads invaded Manchester, then a small village. By the 12th century things started to change with the rapid growth in trade and commerce. In the 13th century, Manchester had soon developed into a prosperous town. It was during this time that there was a rise in the wool industry, which made the Lancastrian (Lancashire) township develop into a flourishing industrial metropolis of the United Kingdom. But an epidemic plague in 1603 took the lives of more than one fourth of the population.
In 1637, Manchester became a famous producer of silks. The turn of the 19th century saw Manchester expanding astonishingly with the boom in textile manufacture – an unplanned urbanization brought about during the industrial revolution. This transformation, however, took over a century, Manchester had evolved from a Roman Castrum in Celtic Britain to record many important scientific achievements during the Victorian era. There was a diversification in industries such as flour milling, finance, tourism, and education. Other sectors such as chemicals, biotechnology, and aerospace quickly made progress.
The mid 20th century, saw a decline in Manchester’s industrial importance, which led to a socioeconomic depression. Renovation of deteriorated neighborhoods through a gentrification process saw an increase in affluent residents in the city. A subsequent re-branding of the city reinstated its fortunes. Manchester is now a place for broadcasting, sporting, and educational institutions. The growth of the city is also due to its superior expansion of transport links. The rise in locomotive during the reign of the Duke of Bridgewater in 1761 was a significant revolution. The demand for coal skyrocketed, which led to building the first canal of the industrial era, the Duke’s canal, also referred to as the Bridgewater Canal, linked Manchester to coal mines in Worsley. Soon an extensive network of canals was constructed that linked Manchester to various parts of England. In 1824, the world’s first Omnibus service started from Manchester’s Market Street to Salford and Pendleton.
Further expansion of the city (outside city boundaries) occurred due to the growth of the industrial revolution. The rise of the tourist and the recreational presence all over the city is majorly due to the ancient history of Manchester. From the Roman era to the Victorian reign, several important incidents of historical significance have shaped up the history of Manchester. The city, however, has suffered from inter-war depression and structural changes in revolutionary industries such as the textile, but will forever remain the seat of the world’s first industrial estate.
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